Botanical Latin Glossary

a service of V. F. Thomas Co.
P. O. Box 55 - Bass Harbor, Maine  04653

(updated 20 June 2018)

This glossary contains words from descriptions and diagnoses of new (at the time) taxa. Its purpose is to provide (1) a list of words used in botanical Latin and (2) examples of how they have been used in botanical literature.

Words in bold face and flush with the left margin are the main entries that are found in Latin dictionaries. Indented words in “normal” face are forms found in the literature (see below for sources). To view a translation of a particular species description, please click below on the name of the desired taxon.

Thank you to Tom Hayward, lecturer emeritus in Classical and Medieval Studies at Bates College (Lewiston, Maine), for his help when I find myself struggling with a translation. In the end, however, I accept responsibility for any errors in this glossary or in the associated translations unless I can find some way to blame them on Tom (or on anyone else). Comments and corrections are welcome and should be sent to Thanks.

Examples of word usage below are from descriptions of the following species:
   Abies balsamea - see Pinus balsamea
   Abies mariana [Miller, P. 1768. The Gardeners Dictionary, 8th ed., p. ABI–ABI]
   Chamaecyparis thyoides - see Cupressus thyoides
   Comptonia peregrina - see Liquidambar peregrina
   Cupressus disticha [Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum, 1st ed., p. 1003 (Page numbers of the 1st edition of Species Plantarum are from the 1957 Ray Society facsimile.)]
   Cupressus sempervirens [Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum, 1st ed., p. 1002]
   Cupressus thyoides [Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum, 1st ed., p. 1003]
   Juniperus communis [Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum, 1st ed., p. 1040]
   Liquidambar peregrina [Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum, 1st ed., p. 999]
   Picea abies - see Pinus abies
   Picea glauca - see Pinus glauca
   Picea mariana - see Abies mariana
   Pinus abies [Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum, 1st ed., p. 1002]
   Pinus balsamea [Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum, 1st ed., p. 1002]
   Pinus canadensis [Linnaeus, C. 1763. Species Plantarum, 2nd ed., p. 1421]
   Pinus cedrus [Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum, 1st ed., p. 1001]
   Pinus cembra [Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum, 1st ed., p. 1000]
   Pinus glauca [Moench, C. 1785. Verzeichniss ausländischer Bäume und Stauden des Lustschlosses Weissenstein bey Cassel, p. 73]
   Pinus larix [Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum, 1st ed., p. 1001]
   Pinus picea [Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum, 1st ed., p. 1001]
   Pinus pinea [Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum, 1st ed., p. 1000]
   Pinus strobus [Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum, 1st ed., p. 1001]
   Pinus sylvestris [Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum, 1st ed., p. 1000]
   Pinus taeda [Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum, 1st ed., p. 1000]
   Taxodium distichum - see Cupressus disticha
   Thuja occidentalis [Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum, 1st ed., p. 1002]
   Thuja orientalis [Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum, 1st ed., p. 1002]
   Tsuga canadensis - see Pinus canadensis

a - preposition (takes ablative): from
ab - preposition (takes ablative): from
abaxialis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: abaxial
absens, absens, absens - adjective, group B: absent
abortivus, -a, um - adjective, group A: abortive
abrupte - adverb: abruptly
absimilis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: dissimilar
acaulis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: stemless
achenium, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: achene
acris, -is, -e - adjective, group B: bitter
aculeus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: prickle
acuminatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: acuminate
   acuminatis - ablative plural feminine; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1002 (Thuja orientalis)
acute - adverb: acutely
acutiusculus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: slightly acute
acutus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: acute
   acutis - ablative plural neuter; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1001 (Pinus cedrus); Miller (1768), p. ABI–ABI (Abies mariana)
ad - preposition (takes accusative): to, up to, near to
admodum - adverb: fully
adscendo, adscendere, adscendi, adscensus - verb, 3rd conjugation: to ascend
aegre - adverb: scarcely
aequalis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: equal
aequaliter - adverb: uniformly, equally
aequo, -are, -avi, -atus - verb, 1st conjugation: to make equal
aerius, -a, -um - adjective, group A: aerial
aestivatio, aestivationis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: aestivation
affinis, -is, -e - adjective, group B (takes genitive or dative): related (to)
alabastrum, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: flower bud
alatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: winged
ala, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: wing
albidus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: whitish
albus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: white
aliquando - adverb: sometimes
aliquantim - adverb: somewhat
aliquot - indeclinable number: several
aliter - adverb: otherwise
alternatim - adverb: alternately
alterno, -are, -avi, -atus - verb, 1st conjugation: to alternate
alternus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: alternate
altus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: high, tall
ambo, -ae, -o - numerical adjective: both
ambitus, ambitus - noun, 4th declension, masculine: outline
amentum, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: ament
amplexicaulis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: stem-clasping
amplitudo, amplitudinis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine
amplus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: large
ampulliformis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: flask-shaped
amylum, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: starch
anceps, anceps, anceps - adjective, group B: two-edged
   ancipitibus - ablative plural feminine; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1003 (Cupressus thyoides)
androecium, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: androecium
angulus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: angle
anguste - adverb: narrowly
angustus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: narrow
annuus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: annual
ante - preposition (takes accusative): before
anthoecium, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: anthoecium
anthera, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: anther
anthesis, anthesis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: anthesis
antice - adverb: anteriorly, in the front
apertura, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: opening
apex, apicis - noun, 3rd declension, masculine: apex
apicalis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: apical
apiculatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: apiculate
apiculus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: apiculus, small terminal point
appendix, appendicis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: appendage
applanatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: flattened
aqua, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: water
aquaticus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: aquatic
arbor, arboris - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: tree
arcte - adverb: closely, firmly
areola, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: areole
argute - adverb: acutely, sharply
arillus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: aril
aseptatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: without septa
asper, -a, -um - adjective, group A: rough
ater, atra, atrum - adjective, group A: black, dull black
attenuatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: attenuate
attingo, attingere, attigi, attactus - verb, 3rd conjugation: to reach
atque - conjunction: and
atroviridis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: dark green
auctor, auctoris - noun, 3rd declension, masculine: author
auricula, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: auricle
auriculatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: auriculate
aut - conjunction: or
axilla, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: axil
axillaris, -is, -e - adjective, group B: axillary
axis, axis - noun, 3rd declension, masculine: axis
bacca, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: berry
basalis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: basal
basicus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: basic
basis, baseos - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: base
basifixus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: basifixed
bene - adverb: well
biennis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: biennial
bifariam - adverb: in two directions
   bifariam; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1002 (Pinus abies)
bini, -ae, -a - adjective, group A: paired (almost exclusively plural)
biseriatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: (arranged) in two rows
biserratus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: biserrate
bractea, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: bract
bracteola, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: bracteole
brevipedicellatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: short-pediceled
brevipetiolatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: short-petioled
brevis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: short
breviter - adverb: shortly, briefly
brunneolus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: brownish
brunneus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: brown
bulbiger, -a, -um - adjective, group A: bulb-bearing
bulbillus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: bulbil
bulbus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: bulb
caducus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: caducous
caespes, caespitis - noun, 3rd declension, masculine: tuft
caespitosus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: cespitose
calcar, calcaris - noun, 3rd declension, neuter: spur
callus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: callus
calyculus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: calyculus
calyx, calycis - noun, 3rd declension, masculine: calyx
canesco, canescere - verb, 3rd conjugation: to be white or gray
cano-tomentosus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: grayish white tomentose
capillus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: hair
capitulum, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: head
capsula, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: capsule
capsularis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: capsule-like
caput, capitis - noun, 3rd declension, neuter: head
carina, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: keel
carnosus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: fleshy
carpellatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: carpellate
carpellum, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: carpel
caruncula, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: caruncle
caryopsis, caryopsidis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: caryopsis
castaniformis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: chestnut-shaped (cf. -formis, -formis, -forme)
caudex, caudicis - noun, 3rd declension, masculine: stem, rootstock
caulinis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: cauline
caulis, caulis - noun, 3rd declension, masculine: stem
-caulis, -caulis, -caule - adjective, group B: -stemmed (description of stem(s) given by prefix)
celeriter - adverb: quickly
cellula, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: cell
centralis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: central
chalaza, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: chalaza
character, characteris - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: character
chloroplastus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: chloroplast
chromosoma, chromosomatis - noun, 3rd declension, neuter: chromosome
cicatrix, cicatricis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: scar
ciliatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: ciliate
   ciliatis - ablative plural neuter; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1000 (Pinus pinea)
cineresco, -ere, ---, --- - verb, 3rd conjugation: to become ash gray
cinereus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: ash gray
circa - adverb: about, approximately
circum - preposition (takes accusative): around (spatially)
classis, classis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: class
clathratus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: clathrate
clavulatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: clavulate
collum, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: neck
color, coloris - noun, 3rd declension, masculine: color
columna, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: column
coma, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: terminal tuft
communis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: common
complano, -are, -avi, -atus - verb, 1st conjugation: to flatten
compono, componere, composui, compositus - verb, 3rd conjugation: to compose
comprimo, -ere, -essi, -essus - verb, 3rd conjugation: to compress
conduplicatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: conduplicate
congener, congeneri - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: congener
congero, congerere, congessi, congestus - verb, 3rd conjugation: to pile up
conicus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: conical
connascor, ---, conasci, connatus - verb, 3rd conjugation: to be fused to a like organ
connectivum, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: connective
conspicue - adverb: conspicuously
consto ... ex, constare ... ex, constiti ... ex, constatus ... ex - 1st conjugation verb phrase (takes ablative): to consist of
constrictio, constrictionis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: constriction
contiguus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: adjacent
conus, -i - noun, 2nd declension masculine: cone
   conis - ablative plural; vide Miller (1768), p. ABI–ABI (Abies mariana)
-cornis, -cornis, -corne - adjective, group B: -horned (description of horn(s) given by prefix)
cornu, cornus - noun, 4th declension, neuter: horn
corolla, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: corolla
corona, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: corona
corpus, corporis - noun, 3rd declension, neuter: body
cortex, corticis - noun, 3rd declension, masculine: bark
corymbus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: corymb
costa, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: (main) nerve
costalis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: costal
costatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: nerved, ribbed
cotyledon, cotyledonis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: cotyledon
crasse - adverb: thickly
crassities, crassitiei - noun, 5th declension, feminine: thickness
crassitudo, crassitudinis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: thickness
crassus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: thick
crebre - adverb: closely, compactly
crenulatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: crenulate
cremeus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: cream-colored
cresco, crescere, crevi, cretus - verb, 3rd conjugation: to grow
crispatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: crisped
crispus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: curled
crista, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: crest, terminal tuft
culmus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: culm
cum - preposition (takes ablative): with
cuneatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: cuneate
cupulatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: cup-shaped
curvatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: curved
cuspis, cuspidis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: cusp
cyathium, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: cyathium
cylindraceus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: cylindric
cylindricus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: cylindric
cyma, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: cyme
cymbiformis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: boat-shaped
cypsela, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: cypsela
dactyliformis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: finger-like
decumbo, -ere, -ui, --- - verb, 3rd conjugation: to recline (with tip ascending)
decurvatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: decurved
decussatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: decussate
dehisco, -ere, -ivi, --- - verb, 3rd conjugation: to dehisce
delicatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: delicate
deltatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: deltate
dendriticus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: dendroid
dendritus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: branched
dens, dentis - noun, 3rd declension, masculine: tooth
dense - adverb: densely, thickly, closely
densus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: dense
dentatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: dentate
depressus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: sunken
descriptio, descriptionis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: description
destituo, destituere, destitui, destitutus - verb, 3rd conjugation: to lack (but not necessarily to be absent)
diameter, diametri - noun, 2nd declension, feminine: diameter
dichasium, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: dichasium
dichotome - adverb: dichotomously
differo, differre, distuli, dilatus - verb, irregular: to differ (from)
digitatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: digitate
dilato, dilatare, dilatavi, dilatatus - verb, 1st conjugation: to widen, to spread out
dilute - adverb: slightly, weakly
dimidio - adverb: by half
dimidius, -a, -um - adjective, group A: half
dimorphus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: dimorphic
dioecius, -a, -um - adjective, group A: dioecious
diploideus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: diploid
discus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: disc
dispono, disponere, disposui, dispositus - verb, 3rd conjugation: to arrange
distaliter - adverb: distally
distichus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: distichous
   distichis - ablative plural neuter; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1002 (Pinus balsamea) and p. 1003 (Cupressus disticha)
distincte - adverb: distinctly
distinctus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: distinct
divido, dividere, divisi, divisus - verb, 3rd conjugation: to divide
dorsalis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: dorsal
dorsum, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: back
drupa, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: drupe
duo, duae, duo - adjective, irregular: two
duplex, duplex, duplex - adjective, group B: double, twofold
   duplici - ablative singular feminine; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1002 (Pinus balsamea)
dyas, dyadis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: dyad
e- - prefix: not, without
e - preposition (takes ablative): from, out of (used before a word that begins with a consonant; see ex)
echinatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: echinate
edulis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: edible
eglandulosus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: eglandular
elegans, elegans, elegans - adjective, group B: elegant
ellipsoideus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: ellipsoid(al)
ellipticus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: elliptic, elliptical
elongatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: elongate
elongo, -are, -avi, -atus - verb, 1st conjugation: to elongate
emarginatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: emarginate
   emarginatis - ablative plural neuter; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1001 (Pinus picea)
embryo, embryonis - noun, 3rd declension, masculine: embryo
endospermium, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: endosperm
eneco, -are, -avi, -tus - verb, 1st conjugation: to kill
epicorticalis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: epicortical
epedunculatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: epedunculate
epidermis, epidermidis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: epidermis
erigo, erigere, erexi, erectus - verb, 3rd conjugation: to erect
et - conjunction: and
et ... et - conjunction: both ... and
ex - preposition (takes ablative): from, out of (used before a word that begins with a vowel and sometimes before a word that begins with a consonant; see e)
exocarpium, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: exocarp
expando, expandere, expandi, expansus - verb, 3rd conjugation: to expand
expono, exponere, exposui, expositus - verb, 3rd conjugation: to expose
exsero, exserere, exserui, exsertus - verb, 3rd conjugation: to exsert
extensio, extensionis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: extension
exter, extera, exterum - adjective, group A: on the outside
externus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: outer
extremus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: extreme
facies, faciei - noun, 5th declension, feminine: appearance
facio, facere, feci, factus - verb, 3rd conjugation: to make
fallax, fallax, fallax - adjective, group B: false
familia, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: family
-farius - adjective, group A: ranked (number of ranks given by prefix)
fasciculatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: fascicled, growing in fascicles
   fasciculatis - ablative plural neuter; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1001 (Pinus cedrus and Pinus larix)
femineus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: female
fere - adverb: nearly, almost
fero, ferre, tuli, latus - verb, irregular: to carry, to bear
fertilis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: fertile
-fidus, -fida, -fidum - adjective, group A: split (number of ways given by prefix)
filamentum, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: filament
filiformis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: filiform
filix, filicis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: fern
flagellum, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: flagellum
flavus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: yellow
flexibilis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: flexible
flexuosus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: flexuous
floralis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: floral, relating to the flower
floreo, -ere, -ui, --- - verb, 2nd conjugation: to flower
florifer, florifera, floriferum - adjective, group A: flowered
flos, floris - noun, 3rd declension, masculine: flower
folium, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: leaf
   foliis - ablative plural; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 999 (Liquidambar peregrina), p. 1000 (Pinus cembra, Pinus pinea, Pinus sylvestris, and Pinus taeda), p. 1001 (Pinus cedrus, Pinus larix, Pinus picea, and Pinus strobus), p. 1002 (Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus abies, and Pinus balsamea), p. 1003 (Cupressus disticha and Cupressus thyoides), and p. 1040 (Juniperus communis); Linnaeus (1763), p. 1421 (Pinus canadensis); Miller (1768), p. ABI–ABI (Abies mariana); Moench (1785), p. 73 (Pinus glauca)
foliosus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: leafy
folliculus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: follicle
forma, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: shape
-formis, -formis, -forme - adjective, group B: -shaped (type of shape given by prefix)
formo, -are, -avi, -atus - verb, 1st conjugation: to form
fortiter - adverb: strongly
fovea, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: pit, small pit
frigus, frigoris - noun, 3rd declension, neuter: cold
frons, frondis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: frond, branchlet
   frondibus - ablative plural; as branchlet: vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1002 (Cupressus sempervirens) and p. 1003 (Cupressus thyoides)
fructifer, -a, -um - adjective, group A: fruit-bearing
fructus, fructus - noun, 4th declension, masculine: fruit
frutex, fruticis - noun, 3rd declension, masculine: shrub
furcatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: forked
fusco, -are, -avi, -atus - verb, 1st conjugation: to darken
galea, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: hood
geminus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: two together{, paired}
   geminis - ablative plural neuter; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1000 (Pinus sylvestris and Pinus pinea)
gemma, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: bud
genus, generis - noun, 3rd declension, neuter: genus
gero, gerere, gessi, gestus - verb, 3rd conjugation: to bear
glaber, glabra, glabrum - adjective, group A: glabrous
   glabris - ablative plural neuter; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1000 (Pinus sylvestris)
glabresco, -ere, ---, --- - verb, 3rd conjugation: to make bare
glans, glandis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: gland
glaucus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: glaucous
   glaucis - ablative plural neuter; vide Moench (1785), p. 73 (Pinus glauca)
globosus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: round (like a ball)
gluma, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: glume
-glumis, -glumis, -glume - adjective, group B: -glumed (description/number of glume(s) given by prefix)
gracilis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: slender
graciliter - adverb: slenderly
gradatim - adverb: gradually
gradus, gradus - noun, 4th declension, masculine: grade
gramen, graminis - noun, 3rd declension, neuter: grass
grandis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: large, tall
granularis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: granular
granum, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: grain
grosse - adverb: thickly, coarsely
gynaecium, -i - see gynoecium
gynoecium, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: gynoecium
gynophorum, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: gynophore
habeo, habere, habui, habitus - verb, 2nd conjugation: to have
habitus, habitus - noun, 4th declension, masculine: habit
hastatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: hastate
hebetatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: dull, not shiny
helicus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: coiled, spirally twisted
herba, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: herb, herbaceous plant
herbaceus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: herbaceous
hermaphroditus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: bisexual, hermaphroditic
hic, haec, hoc - demonstrative pronoun (may function as an adjective): this
hiems, hiemis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: winter
hirsutus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: hairy
homomorphus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: homomorphic
horizontalis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: horizontal
humilis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: low
hybrida, -ae - noun, 1st declension, masculine: hybrid
hypocotylus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: hypocotyl
ignotus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: unknown
imbricatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: imbricate
   imbricatis - ablative plural neuter; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1002 (Cupressus sempervirens) and p. 1003 (Cupressus thyoides)
immineo, -ere, ---, --- - verb, 3rd conjugation (takes dative): to project over
in - preposition (takes accusative or ablative): in, on, into, at
inaequalis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: unequal
incrasso, -are, -avi, -atus - verb, 1st conjugation: to thicken
incumbens, incumbens, incumbens - adjective, group B: incumbent
incurvo, -are, -avi, atus - verb, 1st conjugation: to curve inward
inde - adverb: then
indumentum, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: indumentum
induro, -are, -avi, -atus - verb, 1st conjugation: to make hard
inferne - adverb: below
inferus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: lower
inflorescentia, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: inflorescence
infra - preposition (takes accusative): below
insero, -ere, -ui, -tus - verb, 3rd conjugation: to insert
instruo, instruere, instruxi, instructus - verb, 3rd conjugation: to provide (with)
integer, integra, integrum - adjective, group A: entire
inter - preposition (takes accusative): between
interdum - adverb: sometimes, usually
interglandulosus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: interglandular
internus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: in(side)
interstaminalis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: interstaminal
introrse - adverb: introrsely, toward the axis
intus - preposition (takes ablative): inside
inundo, -are, -avi, -atus - verb, 1st conjugation: to flood
involucellum, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: involucel
involucrum, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: involucre
irregularis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: irregular
irregulariter - adverb: irregularly
juvenilis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: young
juvenis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: young
labellum, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: labellum
labium, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: lip
lacer, -a, -um - adjective, group A: torn
laevis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: smooth
   laevibus - ablative plural masculine; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1002 (Thuja occidentalis)
   laevibus - ablative plural neuter; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1000 (Pinus cembra) and p. 1002 (Pinus abies)
lamina, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: blade
lanatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: woolly
lanceolatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: lanceolate
largus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: large, long
late - adverb: broadly
lateralis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: lateral
lateraliter - adverb (formed from group B adjective lateralis, -is, -e): laterally
latitudo, latitudinis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: width
latus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: wide, broad
latus, lateris - noun, 3rd declension, neuter: side (of)
laxe - adverb: loosely
laxus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: open
legumen, leguminis - noun, 3rd declension, neuter: legume, pod
lemma, lemmatis - noun, 3rd declension, neuter: lemma
levis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: light in weight
leviter - adverb: lightly, slightly
liber, libera, liberum - adjective, group A: free
ligneus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: woody
lignum, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: wood
ligula, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: ligule
ligulatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: ligulate
limbus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: limb
linea, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: line
   linea - ablative singular; [vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1002 (Pinus balsamea)]
linearis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: linear
   linearibus - ablative plural neuter; vide Linnaeus (1763), p. 1421 (Pinus canadensis); Miller (1768), p. ABI–ABI (Abies mariana)
lobus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: lobe
locularis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: locular
longe - adverb: long
longitudinalis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: longitudinal
longitudinaliter - adverb (formed from group B adjective longitudinalis, -is, -e): longitudinally
longitudo, longitudinis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: length
longus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: long
loriformis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: lorate
luridus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: dull yellow
macula, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: spot, blotch
magis - adverb: more
magnitudo, magnitudinis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: size
magnus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: large
margo, marginis - noun, 3rd declension, masculine: margin
marginalis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: marginal
marginatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: margined (often prefixed with a combining form of another adjective to describe the margin)
mas, maris - noun, 3rd declension, masculine: male
masculinus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: male
matrix, matricis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: matrix
maturo, -are, -avi, -atus - verb, 1st conjugation: to ripen
maturus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: mature
medium - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: middle
megaspora, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: megaspore
membranaceus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: membranous
microspora, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: microspore
minimus, -a, -um - adjective, superlative degree of group A adjective parvus, -a, -um: smallest
   minimis - ablative plural masculine; vide Miller (1768), p. ABI–ABI (Abies mariana)
minor, minor, minus - comparative degree of parvus, -a, -um: smaller
minute - adverb: minutely
mollis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: soft
monocarpium, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: monocarp
monoecius, -a, -um - adjective, group A: monoecious
monomorphus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: monomorphic
mucro, mucronis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: mucro
mucronatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: sharply pointed, mucronate
   mucronatis - ablative plural neuter; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1002 (Pinus abies), p. 1040 (Juniperus communis)
multiplex, multiplex, multiplex - adjective, group B: multiple, many of the same kind
multo - adverb: much
multum - adverb: greatly
munio, -ire, -ivi, -itus - verb, 4th conjugation: to provide with, to arm
nec - adverb: and not
nec ... nec - conjunction: neither ... nor
nectar, nectaris - noun, 3rd declension, neuter: nectar
nectarium, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: nectary
-nervis, -nervis, -nerve - adjective, group B: -nerved (description/number of nerve(s) given by prefix)
-nervius, -a, -um - adjective, group A: -nerved (description/number of nerve(s) given by prefix)
nervus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: nerve
niger, nigra, nigrum - adjective, group A: black
nitidus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: shiny
-nodis, -nodis, -node - adjective, group B: -noded (description of node(s) given by prefix)
nodus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: node
nomen, nominis - noun, 3rd declension, neuter: name
non - adverb: not
novus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: new
nucleus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: nucleus
nudus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: naked
nullus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: absent
numerosus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: numerous
numerus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: number
nunquam - adverb: never
obellipticus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: obelliptic
oblanceolatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: oblanceolate
oblique - adverb: obliquely
oblongus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: oblong
   oblongis - ablative plural neuter; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 999 (Liquidambar peregrina)
obovatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: obovate
obscure - adverb: darkly, indistinctly
obtego, obtegere, obtexi, obtectus - verb, 3rd conjugation: to cover
obtundo, obtundere, obtudi, obtusus - verb, 3rd conjugation: to blunt
obtusatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: blunted
obtusus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: blunt, obtuse
   obtusis - ablative plural feminine; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1002 (Thuja occidentalis)
   obtusis - ablative plural neuter; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1001 (Pinus larix)
   obtusiusculis = obtusi- + -usculis - ablative plural neuter; vide Linnaeus (1763), p. 1421 (Pinus canadensis)
occupo, -are, -avi, -atus - verb, 1st conjugation: to fill
ocrea, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: ocrea
octofarius, -a, -um - adjective, group A: eight-ranked
odor, odoris - noun, 3rd declension, masculine: scent
omnino - adverb: wholly, entirely
omnis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: all
oppono, opponere, opposui, oppositus - verb, 3rd conjugation (commonly takes dative): to place opposite
orbicularis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: orbicular
orbiculatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: orbiculate
ordo, ordinis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: order
orificium, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: opening
organum, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: organ
orno, -are, -avi, -atus - verb, 1st conjugation: to endow
originalis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: original
os, oris - noun, 3rd declension, neuter: mouth
ovalis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: oval, elliptic
ovarium, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: ovary
ovatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: ovate
ovoideus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: ovoid
ovulum, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: ovule
paene - adverb: almost
pagina, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine
palaris, -is, -e - adjective, group B: involving a stake
palatum, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: palate
pallide - adverb: palely
palustris, -is, -e - adjective, group B: marshy
paniculatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: paniculate
papilla, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: papilla
pappus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: pappus
par, paris - noun, 3rd declension, neuter: pair
parenchyma, parenchymatis - noun, 3rd declension, neuter: parenchyma
paries, parietis - noun, 3rd declension, masculine: wall
pars, partis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: part, portion
parum - adverb: slightly
parvus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: small (see minor, minor, minus for comparative degree)
pateo, -ere, -ui, — - verb, 2nd conjugation: to spread out
   patentibus - ablative plural neuter, present active participle; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1003 (Cupressus disticha) and p. 1040 (Juniperus communis)
patulus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: spreading
paucus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: few
pedicellatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: pedicelled
pedicellus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: pedicel
pedunculatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: pedunculate
pedunculus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: peduncle
peltatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: peltate
pendulus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: pendulous
   pendulis - ablative plural masculine; vide Moench (1785), p. 73 (Pinus glauca)
penninervis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: pinnately veined
per - preposition (takes accusative): per, during/throughout, by (way of)
perennis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: perennial
perianthium, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: perianth
perigonium, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: perigon
periplastus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: periplast
persevero, -are, -avi, -atus - verb, 1st conjugation: to persevere
persisto, persistere, perstiti, --- - verb, 3rd conjugation: to persist
petalum, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: petal
petiolatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: petiolate
petiolulus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: petiolule
petiolus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: petiole
pileus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: pileus
pilosus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: pilose
pilus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: hair
pistillatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: pistillate
pistillum, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: pistil
placenta, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: placenta
planta, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: plant
planus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: flat
plerumque - adverb: usually
plerusque, -aque, -umque - adjective, group A: the larger, or greater, part of
pollen, pollinis - noun, 3rd declension, neuter: pollen
porto, -are, -avi, -atus - verb, 1st conjugation: to bear
postremus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: ultimate
praecipue - adverb: mainly
praecox, praecox, praecox - adjective, group B: early
praeditus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: provided
praesens, praesens, praesens - adjective, group B: present
praeterea - adverb: further, in addition
primarius, -a, -um - adjective, group A: main, primary
primordialis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: first-formed
   primordialibus - ablative plural neuter; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1000 (Pinus sylvestris and Pinus pinea)
princeps, principis - noun, 3rd declension, masculine: chief
profundus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: deep
prominenter - adverb: prominently
promineo, -ere, -ui, --- - verb, 2nd conjugation: to project
prope - adverb: near
prosterno, prosternere, prostravi, prostratus - verb, 3rd conjugation: to prostrate
proxime - adverb: proximally
puberulus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: puberulent
pubescens, pubescens, pubescens - adjective, group B: pubescent
pubesco, -ere, -ui, --- - verb, 3rd conjugation: to become pubescent
pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum - adjective, group A: beautiful
pulvinatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: pulvinate
punctatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: dotted
   primordialibus - ablative singular feminine; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1002 (Pinus balsamea)
pustulosus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: pustulose
quadrangularis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: quadrangular
quadrangulus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: quadrangular
   quadrangulis - ablative plural feminine; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1002 (Cupressus sempervirens)
quam - adverb: as, than, as much as
quasi - adverb: nearly
quattuor - adjective, indeclinable: four
-que - enclitic conjunction: and
quini, -ae, -a - adjective (numerical distributive), group A: five together, in fives
   quinis - ablative plural neuter; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1000 (Pinus cembra), p. 1001 (Pinus strobus)
quisque, quaeque, quodque - pronoun: each
racemosus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: racemose
racemus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: raceme
radicella, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: rootlet
radix, radicis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: root
radicula, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: radicle
radius, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: ray (flower)
{ramificatus, -a, -um?} - {?}
ramosus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: branched
ramulus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: branchlet
ramus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: branch
rare - adverb: sparsely
raro - adverb: rarely
rarus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: rare
recedo, recedere, recessi, recessus - verb, 3rd conjugation: to recede
recens, recens, recens - adjective, group B: recent
rectangularis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: rectangular
recurvo, -are, -avi, -atus - verb, 1st conjugation: to curve backwards, to recurve
redigo, -ere, -egi, -actus - verb, 3rd conjugation: to reduce
reflecto, -ere, -exi, -exus - verb, 3rd conjugation: to reflex
reflexus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: reflexed
   reflexis - ablative plural feminine; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1002 (Thuja orientalis)
regio, regionis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: region
regnum, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: kingdom
rego, regere, rexi, rectus - verb, 3rd conjugation: to guide {to make straight?}
remaneo, remanere, remansi, remansus - verb, 2nd conjugation: to remain
reniformis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: reniform
restringo, -ere, -nxi, -ctus - verb, 3rd conjugation: to restrict
reticulatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: reticulate
rhachis, rhachis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: rachis
rhizoma, rhizomatis - noun, 3rd declension, neuter: rhizome
rhizomatosus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: rhizomatous
rigeo, -ere, -ui, --- - verb, 2nd conjugation: to be stiff
rigidus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: stiff
rima, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: slit
rostellum, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: rostellum
-rostris, -rostris, -rostre - adjective, group B: -beaked (description of beak(s) given by prefix)
rostrum, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: beak
rosula, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: rosette
rosulatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: rosetted
rotatus, -a, -um - adjective, group B: rotate
rotundatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: rounded
rotundus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: round in outline
rubeo, -ere, -ui, --- - verb, 2nd conjugation: to be(come) red
ruber, rubra, rubrum - adjective, group A: red
rubiginosus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: rusty red
rugosus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: rugose, wrinkled
rumpo, rumpere, rupi, ruptus - verb, 3rd conjugation: to split
ruptura, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: rupturing
saccatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: saccate
saepe - adverb: frequently, often
scaber, scabra, scabrum - adjective, group A: scabrous
   scabris - ablative plural neuter; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1001 (Pinus strobus)
scando, scandere, scandi, scansus - verb, 3rd conjugation: to climb
scapus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: scape
sectio, sectionis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: section
secundarius, -a, -um - adjective, group A: secondary
sed - conjunction: but
segmentum, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: segment
semen, seminis - noun, 3rd declension, neuter: seed
semiligneus, -a, um - adjective, group A: semiwoody
semote - adverb: separately
semper - adverb: always
sensus, sensus - noun, 4th declension, masculine: sense
sepalum, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: sepal
separo, -are, -avi, -atus - verb, 1st conjugation: to separate
septatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: septate
septum, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: cross-wall, septum
sequor, sequi, secutus - verb, deponent: to follow
series, seriei - noun, 5th declension, feminine: series
seriatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: arranged in rows, ranked
sessilis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: sessile
seta, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: bristle
sex - adjective, indeclinable: six
sexfarius, -a, -um - adjective, group A: six-ranked
sexus, sexus - noun, 4th declension, masculine: sense
siccus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: dry
siliqua, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: silique
similaris, -is, -e - adjective, group B (takes dative): similar (to)
similis, -is, -e - adjective, group B (takes dative): similar (to)
simplex, simplex, simplex - adjective, group B: simple, undivided
sine - preposition (takes ablative): without
sinflorescentia, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: synflorescence
singularis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: single, solitary
singulus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: singular, one to each, individual
sinuatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: sinuate
   sinuatis - ablative plural neuter; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 999 (Liquidambar peregrina)
siphon, siphonis - noun, 3rd declension, masculine: tube
situs, situs - noun, 4th declension, masculine: position
solitarius, -a, -um - adjective, group A: solitary
   solitariis - ablative plural neuter; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1000 (Pinus sylvestris and Pinus pinea), p. 1001 (Pinus picea), and p. 1002 (Pinus balsamea); Linnaeus (1763), p. 1421 (Pinus canadensis); Moench (1785), p. 73 (Pinus glauca)
sordidus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: dingy
sorus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: sorus
spadex, spadicis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: spadex
sparse - adverb: sparsely
sparsim - adverb: sparsely
sparsus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: alternate
   sparsis - ablative plural neuter; vide Moench (1785), p. 73 (Pinus glauca)
spatha, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: spathe
spathella, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: spathella
species, speciei - noun, 5th declension, feminine: species
specimen, speciminis - noun, 3rd declension, neuter: specimen
sperma, spermatis - noun, 3rd declension, neuter: seed
spica, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: spike
spicula, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: spikelet
spina, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: spine
spiniformis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: spine-like
spira, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: spiral
spora, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: spore
sporangium, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: sporangium
sporophyllum, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: sporophyll
squama, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: scale
   squamis - ablative plural; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1002 (Thuja occidentalis and Thuja orientalis)
squamiformis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: scale-like, shaped like a scale
squarrosus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: squarrose
   squarrosis - ablative plural masculine; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1002 (Thuja orientalis)
stamen, staminis - noun, 3rd declension, neuter: stamen
staminalis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: staminal
staminatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: staminate
status, status - noun, 4th declension, masculine: standing
sterilis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: sterile
stigma, stigmatis - noun, 3rd declension, neuter: stigma
stipes, stipitis - noun, 3rd declension, masculine: stipe
stipula, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: stipule
stipulatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: stipulate
stirps, stirpis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: plant
stolo, stolonis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: stolon
stramineus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: stramineous, straw-colored
striatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: striate
strobilus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: strobilus
   strobilis - ablative plural; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1002 (Thuja occidentalis and Thuja orientalis); Moench (1785), p. 73 (Pinus glauca)
stylus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: style
sub - preposition (takes ablative): at
sub- - prefix meaning almost, nearly, or slightly
subcapitatus - adjective, group A: subcapitate
subemarginatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: subemarginate
   subemarginatis - ablative plural neuter; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1002 (Pinus balsamea)
subglaber, subglabra, subglabrum - adjective, group A: subglabrous
submembranaceus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: submembranaceous
   submembranaceis - ablative plural neuter; vide Linnaeus (1763), p. 1421 (Pinus canadensis)
subito - adverb: suddenly
subpeltatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: subpeltate
subroseus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: pinkish
subterraneus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: below ground
subtiliter - adverb: finely
subtus - adverb: below (i.e., lower/abaxial surface)
   subtus; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1002 (Pinus balsamea)
subulatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: subulate
   subulatis - ablative plural neuter; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1002 (Pinus abies)
succus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: juice
suffulcio, suffulcire, suffulsi, suffultus - verb, 4th conjugation: to support
suffrutex, suffruticis - noun, 3rd declension, masculine: subshrub
sulcatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: furrowed
sulcus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: furrow
sulphureus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: sulphur yellow
sum, esse, fui, futurus - verb, irregular: to be
super - preposition (takes accusative or ablative): above, beyond
superficialiter - adverb: superficially
superficies, -ei - noun, 5th declension, feminine: surface, face
superne - adverb: above
supero, -are, -avi, -atus - verb, 1st conjugation: to overtop, to extend beyond
superus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: upper
supra - adverb: above (=at/near top), above (=upper surface)
sylva, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: wood
sylvestris, -is, -e - adjective, group B: woodland, wild
sympodialis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: sympodial
tandem - adverb: finally
tantum - adverb: only
taxon, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: taxon
teges, tegetis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: mat
tego, tegere, texi, tectus - verb, 3rd conjugation: to cover
tenax, tenax, tenax - adjective, group B: tough
tener, -a, -um - adjective, group A: thin
tenuis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: thin
tenuiter - adverb: thinly
tepalum, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: tepal
teres, -es, -e - adjective, group B: terete, circular in cross-section
terminalis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: terminal
termino, -are, -avi, -atus - verb, 1st conjugation: to terminate
terni, -ae, -a - adjective (numerical distributive), group A: three together, in threes
   ternis - ablative plural neuter; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1000 (Pinus taeda), p. 1040 (Juniperus communis)
terra - noun, 1st declension, feminine: earth, ground
terrestris, -is, -e - adjective, group B: earthy
tertius, -a, -um - adjective, group A: third
testa, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: testa, outer coat of a seed
tetragonus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: tetragonal
   tetragonis - ablative plural neuter; vide Moench (1785), p. 73 (Pinus glauca)
tetras, tetradis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: tetrad
thallus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: thallus
theca, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: case (refers to a lateral half of an anther; i.e., one pollen sac)
thyrsus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: thyrse
tomentosus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: tomentose
tortuosus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: twisted
torus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: torus, receptacle
transverse - adverb: transversely
tres, tres, tria - numberical adjective: three
triangularis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: triangular
tribus, tribus - noun, 4th declension, feminine: tribe
trichoma, trichomatis - noun, 3rd declension, neuter: hair
tricolpatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: tricolpate
triplex, triplex, triplex - adjective, group B: threefold
truncus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: trunk
tuber, tuberis - noun, 3rd declension, neuter: tuber
tuberculatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: tuberculate
tuberculum, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: tubercle
tubus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: tube
typus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: type
ubi - adverb: where
umbella, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: umbel
undulatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: undulate, wavy
unguiculatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: clawed
unguis, unguis - noun, 3rd declension, masculine: claw
unicus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: single
unisexualis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: unisexual
urceolatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: vase-shaped, urceolate
-usculus, -a, -um - a diminutive suffix
usque - adverb (usually followed by ad): continuously, (all the way) to
uterqui, utraque, utrumque - adjective, group A: each
utriculus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: utricle
utrinque - adverb: on both sides
vacuola, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: vacuole
vadosus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: shallow
vagina, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: sheath
vaginans, vaginans, vaginans - adjective, group B: sheathing
valde - adverb: strongly, very, heavily
valva, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: valve
valvatus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: valvate
variabilis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: variable
varietas, varietatis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: variety
vegetabile, vegetabilis - noun, 3rd declension, neuter: plant
vel - conjunction: or, to
vel ... vel - conjunction: either ... or
velum, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: velum
vena, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: vein
ventralis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: ventral
venula, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: veinlet
vernatio, vernationis - noun, 3rd declension, feminine: vernation
verosimiliter - adverb: very likely
verrucosus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: warty
versus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: turned
   versis - ablative plural neuter; vide Linnaeus (1753), p. 1002 (Pinus abies)
versus - preposition (takes accusative): toward
verticillus, -i - noun, 2nd declension, masculine: whorl
vestitus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: clothed
vetus, vetus, vetus - adjective, group B: old
vetustus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: old
vice - adverb: instead of
villoso-tomentosus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: villous-tomentose
viridis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: green
viscidium, -i - noun, 2nd declension, neuter: viscidium
vix - adverb: barely
volubilis, -is, -e - adjective, group B: twining
vulgo - adverb: commonly
zona, -ae - noun, 1st declension, feminine: zone
zygomorphus, -a, -um - adjective, group A: zygomorphic