Apiaceae of Maine
(Kingdom Plantae, Tricolpates)

a project of
V. F. Thomas Co. - P. O. Box 111 - Shawmut, Maine  04975

(updated 9 July 2020)

Apiaceae - carrot family
Flowers in an umbel is a distinctive feature of the Apiaceae.

Maine is home to 37 species in 25 genera that grow without cultivation. If you already know which species you have or are interested in learning about, click on the appropriate species link below. Otherwise, to determine which genus that the plant in question belongs to, refer to the table immediately below the species list.
   Aegopodium (1 species)
      Aegopodium podagraria - bishop’s goutweed
   Aethusa (1 species)
      Aethusa cynapium - fool’s-parsley
   Anethum (1 species)
      Anethum graveolens - dill
   Angelica (2 species)
      Angelica atropurpurea - purple-stemmed Angelica
      Angelica lucida - sea coast Angelica
   Anthriscus (1 species)
      Anthriscus sylvestris - wild chervil
   Aralia (3 species)
      Aralia hispida - bristly sarsaparilla
      Aralia nudicaulis - wild sarsaparilla
      Aralia racemosa ssp. racemosa - American spikenard
   Carum (1 species)
      Carum carvi - caraway
   Cicuta (2 species)
      Cicuta bulbifera - bulblet-bearing water-hemlock
      Cicuta maculata var. maculata - spotted water-hemlock
   Conioselinum (1 species)
      Conioselinum chinense - Chinese hemlock-parsley
   Conium (1 species)
      Conium maculatum - poison-hemlock
   Coriandrum (1 species)
      Coriandrum sativum - coriander
   Cryptotaenia (1 species)
      Cryptotaenis canadensis - Canada honewort
   Daucus (1 species)
      Daucus carota - Queen Anne’s lace
   Heracleum (3 species)
      Heracleum mantegazzianum - giant cow-parsnip
      Heracleum maximum - American cow-parsnip
      Heracleum sphondylium - European cow-parsnip
   Hydrocotyle (1 species)
      Hydrocotyle americana - American marsh-pennywort
   Levisticum (1 species)
      Levisticum officinale - garden lovage
   Ligusticum (1 species)
      Ligusticum scoticum ssp. scoticum - Scotch lovage
   Lilaeopsis (1 species)
      Lilaeopsis chinensis - eastern grasswort
   Nanopanax (1 species)
      Nanopanax trifolius - dwarf ginseng
   Osmorhiza (4 species)
      Osmorhiza berteroi - mountain sweet-cicely
      Osmorhiza claytonii - bland sweet-cicely
      Osmorhiza depauperata - blunt-fruited sweet-cicely
      Osmorhiza longistylis - long-styled sweet-cicely
   Panax (1 species)
      Panax quinquefolius - American ginseng
   Pastinaca (1 species)
      Pastinaca sativa - wild parsnip
   Pimpinella (1 species)
      Pimpinella saxifraga ssp. saxifraga - solid-stemmed burnet-saxifrage
   Sanicula (3 species)
      Sanicula marilandica - Maryland sanicle
      Sanicula odorata - clustered sanicle
      Sanicula trifoliata - large-fruited sanicle
   Sium (1 species)
      Sium suave - water-parsnip
   Zizia (1 species)
      Zizia aurea - common golden Alexanders

red font = unique character state or nearly so plant height leaf blade division umbel division umbel width petal color style number
Aegopodium 0.4–1 m mostly biternate compound; 15–25 primary branches 6–12 cm white 2
Angelica 0.5–1.2 m pinnately decompound compound; 20–many primary branches greenish white 2
Aralia 0.2–3 m simple; [2–?] primary branches white, greenish white 5
Carum 0.2–0.8 m pinnately dissected compound; 7–14 primary branches white 2
Cicuta 0.2–2 m once- to thrice-pinnate compound; [?] primary branches to 12 cm white 2
Daucus 0.4–1.0 m pinnately decompound compound; [?] primary branches 4–12 cm white 2
Heracleum 2–5 m ternate or ternate-pinnate compound; 50–150 primary branches to 50 cm white 2
Ligusticum 0.3–0.6 m once- to twice-ternate compound; 8–20 primary branches white 2
Nanopanax white
Pastinaca to 1.5 m mostly once-pinnate compound; 15–25 primary branches 10–20 cm yellow 2
Pimpinella 0.3–1 m pinnately divided to dissected compound; 8–20 primary branches white 2
Sium 0.3–2 m once-pinnate compound; 6–many primary branches 3–12 cm white 2

Aegopodium (goutweed)
[information to be added]

Aegopodium podagraria (bishop’s goutweed) - [information to be added]
   (click on image to enlarge)

Aethusa (fool’s-parsley)
[information to be added]

Aethusa cynapium (fool’s-parsley) - [information to be added]

Anethum (dill)
[information to be added]

Aethusa cynapium (fool’s-parsley) - [information to be added]

Angelica (Angelica)
[information to be added]

char. 1 char. 2 char. 3
A. atropurpurea
A. lucida

Angelica atropurpurea (purple-stemmed Angelica) - [information to be added]

Angelica lucida (sea coast Angelica) - [information to be added]
   (click on an image to enlarge)

Anthriscus (fool’s-parsley)
[information to be added]

Anthriscus sylvestris (wild chervil) - [information to be added]

Aralia (sarsaparilla)
[information to be added]

red font = unique character state or nearly so plant height stem armature leaf arrangement petal number petal color fruit color
A. hispida 20–90 cm sharp bristles at the base alternate 5 white dark purple
A. nudicaulis 20–40 cm absent only one leaf, growing from ground level 4 greenish white purple-black
A. racemosa to 300 cm absent alternate 5 greenish white red, turning darker with age

Aralia hispida (bristly sarsaparilla) - [information to be added]
   (click on image to enlarge)

Aralia nudicaulis (wild sarsaparilla) - This does not appear to be a woody plant at first sight, but if you run your fingers down what might be thought to be the stem, you will come to the woody part around ground level. What is above ground is a single leaf.
   (click on image to enlarge)

Aralia racemosa (American spikenard) - [information to be added]

Carum (caraway)
[information to be added]

Carum carvi (caraway) - [information to be added]

Cicuta (water-hemlock)
[information to be added]

plant height stems leaves umbel width petal margin
C. bulbifera 0.2–1 m [?] divided once 2–5 cm [?]
C. maculata 0.5–2 m with a whitish bloom, usually mottled or striped with purple divided 2–3 times 5–6 cm with reflexed margins

Cicuta bulbifera (bulblet-bearing water-hemlock) - [information to be added]

Cicuta maculata (spotted water-hemlock) - [information to be added]

Conioselinum (hemlock-parsley)
[information to be added]

Conioselinum chinense (Chinese hemlock-parsley) - [information to be added]

Conium (poison-hemlock)
[information to be added]

Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock) - [information to be added]

Coriandrum (coriander)
[information to be added]

Coriandrum sativum (coriander) - [information to be added]

Cryptotaenis (honewort)
[information to be added]

Cryptotaenia canadensis (Canada honewort) - [information to be added]

Daucus (Queen Anne’s lace)
[information to be added]

Daucus carota (Queen Anne’s lace)
   root: The root is a taproot, occasionally branched. Before the aerial stem appears, it is edible after boiling. Following the development of the aerial stem, the taproot becomes woody and unpalatable. Even then, though, the outer portion of the root can be peeled away and eaten. (source: Ancestral Plants volume 1, by Arthur Haines; p. 119.)
   stem: Although this species is considered a biennial, it sometimes can take as many as five years for an aerial stem to appear above the rosette of basal leaves. (source: A Guide to Enjoying Wildflowers by Donald and Lillian Stokes; p. 265.) The aerial stem is pubescent.
   leaves: Both the basal leaves (of the rosette) and the alternate, cauline leaves are finely dissected.
   flowers: The flowers grow in a compound umbel (i.e., each branch of the primary umbel gives rise to a secondary umbel, sometimes called an umbellet). Just below the compound umbel are prominent bracts, finely divided like the leaves. Each radially symmetric flower has five white (or nearly so) petals, five stamens that alternate with the petals, and a single pistil that is composed of two fused carpels. Each of the fused carpels gives rise to a stigma. Near the middle of the inflorescence is sometimes a sterile, purple-petaled flower.
   habitat: This native of Eurasia is common in fields.
   (click on an image to enlarge)

Heracleum (cow-parsnip)
[information to be added]

red font = unique character state or nearly so char. 1 char. 2 char. 3 char. 4 char. 5 char. 6
H. mantegazzianum
H. maximum
H. sphondylium

Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant cow-parsnip) - [information to be added]
   (click on an image to enlarge)

Heracleum maximum (American cow-parsnip) - [information to be added]

Heracleum sphondylium (European cow-parsnip) - [information to be added]

Hydrocotyle (marsh-pennywort)
[information to be added]

Hydrocotyle americana (American marsh-pennywort) - [information to be added]

Levisticum (lovage)
[information to be added]

Levisticum officinale (garden lovage) - [information to be added]

Ligusticum (lovage)
[information to be added]

Ligusticum scoticum ssp. scoticum (Scotch lovage) - [information to be added]
   (click on image to enlarge)

Lilaeopsis (grasswort)
[information to be added]

Lilaeopsis chinensis (eastern grasswort) - [information to be added]

Nanopanax (dwarf ginseng)
[information to be added]

Nanopanax trifolius (dwarf ginseng) - [information to be added]
   (click on image to enlarge)

Osmorhiza (sweet-cicely)
[information to be added]

red font = unique character state or nearly so char. 1 char. 2 char. 3 char. 4 char. 5
O. berteroi
O. claytonii
O. depauperata
O. lonngistylis

Osmorhiza berteroi (mountain sweet-cicely) - [information to be added]

Osmorhiza claytonii (bland sweet-cicely) - [information to be added]

Osmorhiza depauperata (blunt-fruited sweet-cicely) - [information to be added]

Osmorhiza longistylis (long-styled sweet-cicely) - [information to be added]

Panax (American ginseng)
[information to be added]

Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng) - [information to be added]
   (click on an image to enlarge)

Pastinaca (wild parsnip)
[information to be added]

Pastinaca sativa (wild parsnip) - [information to be added]
   (click on an image to enlarge)

Pimpinella (burnet-saxifrage)
[information to be added]

Pimpinella saxifraga (solid-stemmed burnet-saxifrage) - [information to be added]

Sanicula (sanicle)
[information to be added]

red font = unique character state or nearly so char. 1 char. 2 char. 3 char. 4 char. 5
S. marilandica
S. odorata
S. trifoliata

Sanicula marilandica (Maryland sanicle) - [information to be added]

Sanicula odorata (clustered sanicle) - [information to be added]

Sanicula trifoliata (large-fruited sanicle) - [information to be added]

Sium (water-parsnip)
[information to be added]

Sium suave (water-parsnip) - [information to be added]
   (click on an image to enlarge)

Zizia (golden Alexanders)
[information to be added]

Zizia aurea (common golden Alexanders) - [information to be added]