Amaranthaceae of Maine
(Kingdom Plantae, Tricolpates)


a project of
V. F. Thomas Co. - P. O. Box 111 - Shawmut, Maine  04975
info@vfthomas.com


(updated 10 July 2020)




Amaranthaceae - amaranth family
   petals: 0

Maine is home to 44 species in 15 genera that grow without cultivation. If you already know which species you have or are interested in learning about, click on the appropriate species link below. Otherwise, to determine which genus that the plant in question belongs to, refer to the table immediately below the species list.
   Amaranthus (6 species)
      Amaranthus albus - tumbleweed amaranth
      Amaranthus blitoides - prostrate amaranth
      Amaranthus cannabinus - salt marsh water-hemp
      Amaranthus hybridus - green amaranth
      Amaranthus retroflexus - red-rooted amaranth
      Amaranthus tuberculatus - rough-fruited water-hemp
   Atriplex (6 species)
      Atriplex acadiensis - maritime orache
      Atriplex glabriuscula - bracted orache
      Atriplex littoralis - linear-leaved orache
      Atriplex patula - spreading orache
      Atriplex prostrata - hastate-leaved orache
      Atriplex subspicata - saline orache
   Axyris (1 species)
      Axyris albus - Russian-pigweed
   Bassia (2 species)
      Bassia hyssopifolia - five-horned smotherweed
      Bassia scoparia - firebush smotherweed
   Beta (1 species)
      Beta vulgaris - beet
   Blitum (4 species)
      Blitum bonus-henricus - perennial orache-goosefoot
      Blitum capitatum ssp. capitatum - strawberry orache-goosefoot
      Blitum nuttalliana - Nuttall’s orache-goosefoot
      Blitum virgatum ssp. virgatum - leafy orache-goosefoot
   Chenopodiastrum (2 species)
      Chenoposiastrum murale - nettle-leaved false goosefoot
      Chenoposiastrum simplex - giant-seeded false goosefoot
   Chenopodium (6 species)
      Chenopodium album - white goosefoot
      Chenopodium berlandieri - pit-seeded goosefoot
      Chenopodium betaceum - oval-seeded goosefoot
      Chenopodium foggii - Fogg’s goosefoot
      Chenopodium leptophyllum - narrow-leaved goosefoot
      Chenopodium pratericola - desert goosefoot
   Dysphania (3 species)
      Dysphania ambrosioides - Mexican-tea
      Dysphania botrys - Jerusalem-oak
      Dysphania graveolens - fetid glandular-goosefoot
   Lipandra (1 species)
      Lipandra polysperma - manyseed goosefoot
   Oxybasis (3 species)
      Oxybasis glauca ssp. glauca - oak-leaved Eurasian-goosefoot
      Oxybasis rubra - red Eurasian-goosefoot
      Oxybasis urbica - city Eurasian-goosefoot
   Salicornia (3 species)
      Salicornia bigelovii - dwarf glasswort
      Salicornia depressa - common glasswort
      Salicornia maritima - sea glasswort
   Salsola (2 species)
      Salsola kali - saltwort
      Salsola tragus - prickly saltwort
   Spinacea (1 species)
      Spinacea oleracea - spinach
   Suaeda (3 species)
      Suaeda calceoliformis - American sea-blite
      Suaeda linearis - annual sea-blite
      Suaeda maritima - herbaceous sea-blite




red font = unique character state or nearly so leaf arrangement leaf morphology petiole base stem roughness
Amaranthus alternate expanded blade with distinct petiole petiole base clasps stem may or may not be rough
Atriplex alternate and/or opposite expanded blade with distinct petiole petiole base narrow, does not clasp stem may or may not be rough
Axyris
Bassia
Beta
Blitum
Chenopodiastrum
Chenopodium alternate expanded blade with distinct petiole petiole base narrow, does not clasp stem not rough
Dysphania
Lipandra
Oxybasis
Salicornia opposite scale-like, no petiole n/a (no petiole) not rough
Salsola
Spinacea
Suaeda alternate linear, no petiole n/a (no petiole) not rough


Amaranthus (amaranth)
   Etymology: The name of this genus comes from the Greek (second declension neuter) noun amaranton (αμαραντον) for “never-fading flower”, referring to the “dry, unwithering bracts”2. The Latin noun amarantus is masculine (second declension), hence the (nominative singular) masculine specific epithets, which are here adjectives.

red font = unique character state or nearly so bract length apex of sepals of carpellate flowers curvature of upper portion of sepals of carpellate flowers
A. albus
A. blitoides
A. cannabinus
A. hybridus 3–4 mm (sub)acute not outwardly curved
A. retroflexus 4–8 mm obtuse to emarginate outwardly curved
A. tubercuatus

Amaranthus albus (tumbleweed amaranth) - [information to be added]

Amaranthus blitoides (prostrate amaranth) - [information to be added]

Amaranthus cannabinus (salt marsh water-hemp - [information to be added]

Amaranthus hybridus (green amaranth) has been reported in Maine from Hancock and Waldo Counties and from York, Cumberland, and Oxford Counties. It has been reported from scattered counties in New Hampshire and Vermont, and from most counties of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut.

Amaranthus retroflexus (red-rooted amaranth) has been reported from all counties in Maine and almost all in New England. The early season shoots, later leaves, and finally seeds are “important and nutrient-dense foods”3.

Amaranthus tuberculatus (rough-fruited water-hemp) - [information to be added]


Atriplex (orache)
[information to be added]

red font = unique character state or nearly so extent of leafy bracts in inflorescence shape of brown fruits abundance of black fruits habitat
A. acadiensis only at base more or less round common salt marshes, sea beaches
A. glabriuscula nearly to tip {?} rare or absent salt marshes, sea beaches
A. littoralis
A. patula only at base more or less round common roadsides, waste areas
A. prostrata only at base more or less round common salt marshes, sea beaches
A. subspicata only at base elliptic (wider than long) common salt marshes, sea beaches

Atriplex acadiensis (maritime orache) - [information to be added]

Atriplex glabriuscula (bracted orache) - [information to be added]

Atriplex littoralis (linear-leaved orache) - [information to be added]

Atriplex patula (spreading orache) - rare on Mount Desert Island

Atriplex prostrata (hastate-leaved orache) - [information to be added]

Atriplex subspicata (saline orache) - [information to be added]


Axyris ([?])
[information to be added]

Axyris amaranthoides (Russian-pigweed) - [information to be added]


Bassia ([?])
[information to be added]

char. 1 char. 2
B. hyssopifolia
B. scoparia

Bassia hyssopifolia (five-horned smotherweed) - [information to be added]

Bassia scoparia (firebush smotherweed) - [information to be added]


Beta (beet)
[information to be added]

Beta vulgaris (beet) - [information to be added]


Blitum (orache-goosefoot)
[information to be added]

red font = unique character state or nearly so char. 1 char. 2
Blitum bonus-henricus
B. capitatum ssp. capitatum
B. nuttallianum
B. virgatum ssp. capitatum

Blitum bonus-henricus (perennial orach-goosefoot) [information to be added]

Blitum capitatum ssp. capitatum (strawberry orache-goosefoot) [information to be added]

Blitum nuttallianum (Nuttall’s orache-goosefoot) [information to be added]

Blitum virgatum ssp. virgatum (leafy orache-goosefoot) [information to be added]


Chenopodiastrum (false goosefoot)
[information to be added]

char. 1 char. 2
C. murale
C. simplex

Chenopodiastrum murale (nettle-leaved false goosefoot) [information to be added]

Chenopodium simplex (giant-seeded false goosefoot) [information to be added]


Chenopodium (goosefoot)
[information to be added]

red font = unique character state or nearly so sepal number habit
C. album consistently 5 erect
C. berlandieri
C. betaceum
C. fogii
C. leptophyllum
C. pratericola

Chenopodium album (white goosefoot) [information to be added]

Chenopodium berlandieri (pit-seeded goosefoot) [information to be added]

Chenopodium betaceum (oval-seeded goosefoot) [information to be added]

Chenopodium foggii (Fogg’s goosefoot) [information to be added]

Chenopodium leptophyllum (narrow-leaved goosefoot) [information to be added]

Chenopodium pratericola (desert goosefoot) [information to be added]


Dysphania (glandular goosefoot)
[information to be added]

red font = unique character state or nearly so char. 1 char. 2
D. ambrosioides
D. botrys
D. graveolens

Dysphhania ambrosioides (wormseed) [information to be added]

Dysphania botrys (crested glandular-goosefoot) [information to be added]

Dysphania graveolens (fetid glandular-goosefoot) [information to be added]


Lipandra (manyseed-goosefoot)
[information to be added]

Lipandra polysperma (manyseed-goosefoot) - [information to be added]


Oxybasis (Eurasian-goosefoot)
[information to be added]

red font = unique character state or nearly so char. 1 char. 2
O. glauca ssp. glauca
O. rubra
O. urbica

Oxybasis glauca ssp. glauca (oak-leaved Eurasian-goosefoot) [information to be added]

Oxybasis rubra (red Eurasian-goosefoot) [information to be added]

Oxybasis urbica (city Eurasian-goosefoot) [information to be added]


Salicornia (glasswort)
   Etymology: Salicornia is derived from two Latin words: sal, salis, salt (from its saline habitat); and cornu, cornus, horn (from the horn-like appearance of its branches)1.

red font = unique character state or nearly so char. 1 char. 2
S. bigelovii
S. depressa
S. depressa

Salicornia bigelovii (dward glasswort) [information to be added]

Salicornia depressa (common glasswort) - [information to be added]
      
   (click on an image to enlarge)

Salicornia maritima (sea glasswort) [information to be added]


Salsola (saltwort)
[information to be added]

char. 1 char. 2
S. kali
S. kali

Salsola kali (saltwort) [information to be added]

Salsola tragus (prickly saltwort) [information to be added]


Spinacea (spinach)
[information to be added]

Spinacea oleracea (spinach) [information to be added]


Suaeda (sea-blite)
[information to be added]

red font = unique character state or nearly so habit relative size of sepals at maturity anther length seed width
S. calceoliformis erect to decumbent unequal 0.3–0.4 mm 0.8–1.7 mm
S. linearis erect equal approximately 0.2 mm 1.0–1.8 mm
S. maritima prostrate to erect equal [?] 1.0–2.2 mm

Suaeda calceoliformis (American sea-blite) [information to be added]

Suaeda linearis (annual sea-blite) - [information to be added]

Suaeda maritima (herbaceous sea-blite) - [information to be added]
   
   (click on image to enlarge)


Notes:
   1Britton, Nathaniel Lord, and Addison Brown. 1896, volume I, page 582. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
   2Britton, Nathaniel Lord, and Addison Brown. 1896, volume I, page 587. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
   3Haines, Arthur. 2015. Ancestral Plants, volume 2.