Checklists for Mount Desert Island

part of the
Champlain Project - 183 Pleasant Street, Apartment 1 - Canton, Maine  04221
info@vfthomas.com


(updated 25 April 2017)


Welcome to the Checklist home page, part of the Champlain Project.

Purpose of this web page: Over time many checklists have been compiled for plants, animals, fungi, etc., that have been observed on Mount Desert Island or in the air above it or in the water immediately surrounding it. Not only has there been much duplication of effort, many of the checklists reside in relatively obscure locations. The purpose of the web pages linked to from this page is to provide an accessible source for the information contained in those checklists as well as in others that are being developed as part of the Champlain Project.

How this web page is organized.  The Champlain Project checklist page contains taxonomically arranged links to checklists of Mount Desert Island’s plants, animals, fungi, etc. Many links are followed by descriptions of one or more research projects, questions, or observations. Within some (goal: all) checklists, links for some (goal: all) species lead to further information, including photographs.

How to contribute to this web site.  All information (animal or plant observations, questions, photographs, notices of events, etc.) for the Champlain Project web site should be e-mailed to info@vfthomas.com or sent by traditional mail to the address at the top of this page. Credit will be given to submitters, or, if desired, information can be posted anonymously. Suggestions for additional topics are encouraged. Material may be edited, primarily for brevity.






Living organisms were divided at one time into two kingdoms: Kingdom Animalia (animals) and Kingdom Plantae (plants). Perhaps you used to play the guessing game “Animal, Vegetable, or Mineral”. Then, in the late 1960s, came the five-kingdom classification: Kingdoms Monera, Protista (sometimes called Protoctista), Fungi, Animalia, and Plantae (sometimes called Metaphyta). Now, with the advent of molecular biology, which has made it possible to sequence DNA, and computers, which have made previously impossible calculations manageable, we have a better understanding of the evolutionary relationships among organisms. Three domains (a grouping above the kingdom level) are now recognized: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. The first two domains contain the prokaryotes (all formerly in Kingdom Monera), and Eukarya, as the name suggests, includes the eukaryotes. Today, researchers still recognize Fungi, Animalia, and Plantae, but the former Kingdom Protista is now known to contain many species that are not more closely related to each other than they are to Fungi, Animalia, or Plantae. It is, therefore, no longer recognized, and species, genera, families, etc., that were once thought to be united under that kingdom are listed immediately below.

You may browse the entire list, or click on one of the following checklists to go directly to that group.

ANIMALS
   all
   sponges
   cnidarians
   comb jellies
   flatworms
   rotifers
   kinorhynchs
   ribbon-worms
   molluscs (periwinkles, clams, etc.)
   segmented worms (earthworms, blood worms, leeches)
   arthropods (arachnids, insects)
   echinoderms (starfish, sea urchins)
   chordates (animals with backbones)
FUNGI/LICHENS
   all
   ascomycetes
   basidiomycetes
   lichens


ALGAE
   all
   brown algae
   red algae
   green algae

PLANTS
   all
   liverworts
   hornworts
   mosses
   tracheophytes (clubmosses, ferns, conifers, flowering plants)




Animals (Kingdom Animalia)

Sponges (Phylum Porifera)
Checklist: For a species checklist of sponges that live or potentially live in the ocean adjacent to Mount Desert Island, click here.
Research Project: Some of the species of sponges on the checklist linked to immediately above are listed in a book that reported general distributions (e.g., Labrador to Cape Cod) but have not been documented for Mount Desert Island. Each species needs to be documented (photographed or collected [not alive]) or determined to be listed incorrectly.

Cnidarians (Phylum Cnidaria)
Checklist: For a species checklist of cnidarians that potentially live in the waters of Mount Desert Island or in the adjacent ocean, click here.
Research Project: Some of the species of cnidarians on the checklist linked to immediately above are listed in a book that reported general distributions (e.g., Labrador to Cape Cod) but have not been documented for Mount Desert Island. Each species needs to be documented (photographed or collected [not alive]) or determined to be listed incorrectly.

Comb Jellies (Phylum Ctenophora)
Checklist: For a species checklist of comb jellies that potentially live in the waters of Mount Desert Island or adjacent ocean, click here.
Research Project: Two of the three species of comb jellies on the checklist linked to immediately above are listed in a book that reported general distributions (e.g., Labrador to Cape Cod) but have not been documented for Mount Desert Island. These two species need to be documented (photographed or collected [not alive]) or determined to be listed incorrectly.

Flatworms (Phylum Platyhelminthes)
Checklist: For a species checklist of flatworms that potentially live on Mount Desert Island or in the adjacent ocean, click here.
Research Project: Some of the species of flatworms on the checklist linked to immediately above are listed in a book that reported general distributions (e.g., Labrador to Cape Cod) but have not been documented for Mount Desert Island. Each species needs to be documented (photographed or collected [not alive]) or determined to be listed incorrectly.

Rotifers (Phylum Rotifera)
Checklist: For a species checklist of rotifers that live in the waters of Mount Desert Island, click here.

Kinorhynchs (Phylum Kinorhyncha)
Checklist: For a species checklist of kinorhynchs that live in the ocean adjacent to Mount Desert Island, click here.

Ribbon-worms (Phylum Nemertea)
Checklist: For a species checklist of ribbon-worms that potentially live on Mount Desert Island or in the adjacent ocean, click here.
Research Project: Some of the species of flatworms on the checklist linked to immediately above are listed in a book that reported general distributions (e.g., Labrador to Cape Cod) but have not been documented for Mount Desert Island. Each species needs to be documented (photographed or collected [not alive]) or determined to be listed incorrectly.

Molluscs (Phylum Mollusca)
Checklist: For a species checklist of molluscs that (potentially) live on Mount Desert Island or in the adjacent ocean, click here.
Research Project 1: The species on the checklist linked to immediately above are listed in a book that reports general distributions (e.g., Labrador to Cape Cod). Each species needs to be documented (photographed or collected [not alive]) for the waters of Mount Desert Island or adjacent ocean, or determined to be listed incorrectly.
Research Project 2: The species on the Mollusca checklist linked to above are marine members of the phylum. Nonmarine species need to be determined and added to the list.

Segmented Worms (Phylum Annelida)
Summary of Phylum: Phylum Annelida is divided into 3 classes: Polychaeta (mostly marine, such as blood worms and clam worms), Oligochaeta (including the familiar earthworms), and Hirudinea (leeches).
Checklist: For a species checklist of segmented worms that (potentially) live on Mount Desert Island or adjacent ocean, click here.
Research Project: The species on the Annelida checklist linked to immediately above are only two of many more in this phylum. Remaining species need to be determined and added to the list.

Arthropods (Phylum Arthropoda)
Summary of Phylum: Phylum Arthropoda is divided into 18 classes. These classes are grouped in 3 subphyla: Chelicerata (Classes Merostomata, Arachnida, and Pycnogonida), Crustacea (Classes Cephalocarids, Branchiopoda, Ostracoda, Copepoda, Mystacocarida, Remipedia, Tantulocarida, Branchiura, Cirripedia, and Malacostraca), and Atelocerata (Classes Diplopoda, Chilopoda, Pauropoda, Symphyla, and Hexapoda).

Spiders, Harvestmen, Mites, etc. (Class Arachnida of Phylum Arthropoda)

Book Scorpions (Order Pseudoscorpionida of Class Arachnida of Phylum Arthropoda)
Checklist: For a species checklist of book scorpions that have been reported for Mount Desert Island, click here.

Spiders (Order Aranae of Class Arachnida of Phylum Arthropoda)
Checklist: For a species checklist of spiders that have been reported for Mount Desert Island, click here.

Daddy Longlegs, Harvestmen (Order Opiliones of Class Arachnida of Phylum Arthropoda)
Checklist: For a species checklist of daddy longlegs and harvestmen that have been reported for Mount Desert Island, click here.

Scorpions (Order Pseudoscorpionida of Class Arachnida of Phylum Arthropoda)
Checklist: For a species checklist of scorpions that have been reported for Mount Desert Island, click here.

Mites, Ticks (Order Acari of Class Arachnida of Phylum Arthropoda)
Checklist: Only one species of tick, Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris, is identified to the species level for Mount Desert Island in the 1946 publication of William Procter’s Biological Survey of the Mount Desert Region (part VII, p. 530).

Hexapods (Class Hexapoda of Phylum Arthropoda)
Summary of Class: Two current textbooks in entomology (the 7th edition of “Borror and Delong’s Introduction to the Study of Insects” by Triplehorn and Johnson [2005, ISBN 0-03-096835-6] and “Insects: Their Natural History and Diversity” by Stephen A. Marshall [2006, ISBN 978-1-55297-900-6]) recognize 31 and 33 orders, respectively, under Class Hexapoda. The two additional orders (Megaloptera and Raphidioptera) in the latter book are included as suborders within Order Neuroptera of the former one. Representatives of 21 (22 if Suborder Megaloptera is elevated to order level) of the orders have been reported from Mount Desert Island.

Springtails (Order Collembola of Class Hexapoda of Phylum Arthropoda)
Checklist: Only one species of springtail was reported for Mount Desert Island in the 1946 publication of William Procter’s Biological Survey of the Mount Desert Region (part VII, p. 36.): Anurida maritima Guérin (now included in family Hypogastruridae).

Diplurans (Order Diplura of Class Hexapoda of Phylum Arthropoda)
Checklist: Only one species of dipluran was reported for Mount Desert Island, specifically Bar Harbor, in the 1946 publication of William Procter’s Biological Survey of the Mount Desert Region (part VII, p. 36.): Campodea fragilis Meinert, in family Campodeidae. (Procter included this species and family in Order Thysanura.)

Firebrats (Order Thysanura of Class Hexapoda of Phylum Arthropoda)
Checklist: Only one species of firebrat was reported for Mount Desert Island, specifically Bar Harbor, in the 1946 publication of William Procter’s Biological Survey of the Mount Desert Region (part VII, p. 36.): Thermobia domestica (Packard), in family Lepismatidae. (Procter used the family name Lepismidae.)

Mayflies (Order Ephemeroptera of Class Hexapoda of Phylum Arthropoda)
Checklist: For a species checklist of mayflies that have been reported for Mount Desert Island, click here.

Damselflies and Dragonflies (Order Odonata of Class Hexapoda of Phylum Arthropoda)
Checklist: For a species checklist of odonates that have been reported for Mount Desert Island, click here.
Research Project: Data from the Maine Damselfly and Dragonfly Survey (MDDS) and those of William Procter’s 1946 publication of the Biological Survey of the Mount Desert Region (part VII, amplified revised) need to be reconciled. For example, there are species listed in Procter that were not later reported by MDSS.

Orthopterans (Order Orthoptera of Class Hexapoda of Phylum Arthropoda)
Checklist: For a species checklist of orthopterans (grasshoppers, katydids, crickets, etc.) that have been reported for Mount Desert Island, click here.

Stoneflies (Order Plecoptera of Class Hexapoda of Phylum Arthropoda)
Checklist: For a species checklist of stoneflies that have been reported for Mount Desert Island, click here.
Research Project: Nomenclature and identification of several entries on the checklist linked to immediately above need further examination.

Cockroaches (Order Blattodea of Class Hexapoda of Phylum Arthropoda)
Checklist: For a species checklist of cockroaches that have been reported for Mount Desert Island, click here.

Bugs, Cicadas, Aphids, etc. (Order Hemiptera of Class Hexapoda of Phylum Arthropoda)
Checklist: For a species checklist of hemipterans that have been reported for Mount Desert Island, click here.

Thrips (Order Thysanoptera of Class Hexapoda of Phylum Arthropoda)
Checklist: For a species checklist of thrips that have been reported for Mount Desert Island, click here.

Psocids (Order Psocoptera of Class Hexapoda of Phylum Arthropoda)
Checklist: For a species checklist of psocids that have been reported for Mount Desert Island, click here.

Lice (Order Phthiraptera of Class Hexapoda of Phylum Arthropoda)
Checklist: For a species checklist of lice that have been reported for Mount Desert Island, click here.

Beetles (Order Coleoptera of Class Hexapoda of Phylum Arthropoda)
Checklists: For species checklists of beetles that have been reported for Mount Desert Island, click on part 1 or part 2.
Research Project: Names in both parts of the checklist need to be brought up to date based on the 2011 publication Checklist of the Beetles of Maine, USA (ISBN 978-0-9695104-4-4).

Neuropterans (Order Neuroptera of Class Hexapoda of Phylum Arthropoda)
Checklist: For a species checklist of neuropterans that have been reported for Mount Desert Island, click here.

Bees, Wasps, Ants, etc. (Order Hymenoptera of Class Hexapoda of Phylum Arthropoda)
Checklist: For a species checklist of bees, wasps, ants, etc., that have been reported for Mount Desert Island, click here.

Caddisflies (Order Trichoptera of Class Hexapoda of Phylum Arthropoda)
Checklist: For a species checklist of caddisflies that have been reported for Mount Desert Island, click here.

Butterflies and Moths (Order Lepidoptera of Class Hexapoda of Phylum Arthropoda)
Checklists: For species checklists of butterflies and moths that have been reported for Mount Desert Island, click on butterflies and skippers or moths (part 1) or moths (part 2).

Fleas (Order Siphonaptera of Class Hexapoda of Phylum Arthropoda)
Checklist: For a species checklist of fleas that have been reported for Mount Desert Island, click here.

Scorpionflies (Order Mecoptera of Class Hexapoda of Phylum Arthropoda)
Checklist: For a species checklist of scorpionflies that have been reported for Mount Desert Island, click here.

Twisted-wing Parasites (Order Strepsiptera of Class Hexapoda of Phylum Arthropoda)
Checklist: Only two individuals from Order Strepsiptera were reported for Mount Desert Island in the 1946 publication of William Procter’s Biological Survey of the Mount Desert Region (part VII, p. 209.). Both were in the genus Stylops but were not identified to species. They were collected from Mount Desert (“N. E. Harbor”) and Southwest Harbor (“Echo Lake”).

Flies (Order Diptera of Class Hexapoda of Phylum Arthropoda)
Checklists: For species checklists of flies that have been reported for Mount Desert Island, click on part 1 or part 2.

Echinoderms (Phylum Echinodermata)
Checklist: For a species checklist of echinoderms that potentially live in the waters of Mount Desert Island or adjacent ocean, click here.
Research Project: Most species on the checklist linked to immediately above are listed in a book that reports general distributions (e.g., Labrador to Cape Cod). Each species needs to be documented (photographed or collected [not alive]) for the waters of Mount Desert Island or adjacent ocean, or determined to be listed incorrectly.

Chordates (Phylum Chordata)
Summary of Phylum: Three subphyla of chordates occur in Maine (including deeper water off the coast): Urochordata (tunicates, sea squirts), Cephalochordata (lancets), and Vertebrata (vertebrates). Maine’s Vertebrata are further divided into eight classes: Myxini (hagfish), Cephalaspidomorphi (lampreys), Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish), Osteichthyes (bony fish), Amphibia (amphibians), Reptilia (reptiles), Aves (birds), and Mammalia (mammals).

Bony Fish (Class Osteichthyes of Phylum Chordata)
Checklist: For a species checklist of bony fish that have been reported to live in the waters of Mount Desert Island or adjacent ocean, click here.

Amphibians (Class Amphibia of Phylum Chordata)
Checklist: For a checklist of all species of amphibians that have been reported for Mount Desert Island, click here.
Research project: It has been said that there are no American toads (Bufo americanus) on the east side of Mount Desert Island. Of course, no one seems to say how far east is “east”. So, here is a question: What is the distribution of American toad on MDI? Of special interest is how far east they are found.

Reptiles (Class Reptilia of Phylum Chordata)
Checklist: For a checklist of all species of reptiles that have been reported for Mount Desert Island, click here.

Birds (Class Aves of Phylum Chordata)
Checklist: For a species checklist of birds that have been reported for Mount Desert Island and the adjacent ocean, click here.
Daily Sightings: It is not unusual for someone to report the first robin in the spring, and Acadia National Park has a general year-round frequency record for birds, but now there is a day-by-day record of what species are observed and where they are seen. To download this spreadsheet, click here. To contribute to this project, please e-mail your bird observations (giving the species, the date, and the location).

Mammals (Class Mammalia of Phylum Chordata)
Checklist: For a checklist of all species of mammals that have been reported for Mount Desert Island and the adjacent ocean, click here.


Fungi (Kingdom Fungi)

Ascomycetes (Class Ascomycota)
Checklist: For a species checklist of ascomycetes that grow on Mount Desert Island, click here.
Research Project: This checklist and nomenclature is based on a very old (1902) article in the Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, and, therefore, the taxonomy needs to be updated.

Basidiomycetes (Class Basidiomycota)
Checklist: For a species checklist of basidiomycetes that grow on Mount Desert Island, click here.
Research Project: Most of this checklist and nomenclature is based on a very old (1902) article in the Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, and, therefore, the taxonomy needs to be updated.

Lichens
Checklist: For a species checklist of lichens that grow on Mount Desert Island, click here.
Research Project: The species on the checklist linked to immediately above were reported from a variety of sources about Acadia National Park that included islands near Mount Desert Island. Each species, therefore, needs to be documented for Mount Desert Island itself.


Algae

Brown Algae
Checklist: For a species checklist of brown algae that live in the ocean adjacent to Mount Desert Island, click here.
Research Project: The species of brown algae in the checklist linked to immediately above are only a few of those that live in the waters of Mount Desert Island or in the adjacent ocean. Remaining species need to be determined and added to the list.

Red Algae
Checklist: For a species checklist of red algae that live in the ocean adjacent to Mount Desert Island, click here.
Research Project: The species of red algae in the checklist linked to immediately above are only a few of those that live in the waters of Mount Desert Island or in the adjacent ocean. Remaining species need to be determined and added to the list.

Green Algae
Checklist: For a species checklist of green algae that live in the ocean adjacent to Mount Desert Island, click here.
Research Project: The species of green algae in the checklist linked to immediately above are only a few of those that live in the waters around or on Mount Desert Island. Remaining species need to be determined and added to the list.


Plants

Plants were previously categorized according to whether they were (considered to be) nonvascular or vascular. Liverworts, hornworts, and mosses were called nonvascular and the so-called higher plants (clubmosses, horsetails and scouring rushes, ferns, conifers, and angiosperms) were called vascular. Now it is known that there is rudimentary vascular tissue in mosses, thereby making the nonvascular designation incorrect. However, liverworts, hornworts, and mosses do not possess tracheids, which the ferns, conifers, and angiosperms do. Therefore these latter three are now collectively called tracheophytes.

Liverworts
Checklist: For a checklist of all species of liverworts that have been reported for Mount Desert Island, click here.
Research Project: This checklist and nomenclature is based on a very old (1924) article in Rhodora, the journal of the New England Botanical Club. Therefore, the taxonomy needs to be updated.

Hornworts
Checklist: For a checklist of both species of hornworts that have been reported for Mount Desert Island, click here.
Research Project: This checklist and nomenclature is based on a very old (1924) article in Rhodora, the journal of the New England Botanical Club. Therefore, the taxonomy needs to be updated.

Mosses
Checklist: For a checklist of all species of mosses that have been reported for Mount Desert Island, click here.

Tracheophytes
Summary: Tracheophytes of Mount Desert Island fall into seven groups: lycophytes, monilophytes, nonflowering seed plants, Nymphaeales, monocots, Ceratophyllales, and eudicots (also called tricolpates due to the presence of three long grooved apertures on the pollen grain). For a view of the larger picture, please see the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. An online identification guide to the tracheophytes of Mount Desert Island is being prepared but is probably several years from completion. To learn more about the project and to receive a link to it, send a request to info@vfthomas.com.

Lycophytes (clubmosses, spikemosses, and quillworts)
Checklist: For a species checklist of lycophytes that (potentially) grow on Mount Desert Island, click here.
Research Project: The species on the checklist linked to immediately above were reported in a journal article that included nine islands near Mount Desert Island in what the authors called the “MDI unit”. Each species needs to be documented for Mount Desert Island itself.

Monilophytes (ferns and horsetails / scouring rushes)
Checklist: For a species checklist of monilophytes that (potentially) grow on Mount Desert Island, click here.
Research Project: The species on the checklist linked to immediately above were reported in a journal article that included nine islands near Mount Desert Island in what the authors called the “MDI unit”. Each species needs to be documented for Mount Desert Island itself.

Nonflowering seed plants (conifers primarily)
Checklist: For a species checklist of nonflowering seed plants that grow on Mount Desert Island, click here.
Research Project: The species on the checklist linked to immediately above were reported in a journal article that included nine islands near Mount Desert Island in what the authors called the “MDI unit”. Each species needs to be documented for Mount Desert Island itself.
   Research Results: All species on the checklist of nonflowering seed plants above have been verified for MDI.

Nymphaeales (water-lilies and related plants)
Checklist: For a species checklist of water-lilies and related plants that (potentially) grow on Mount Desert Island, click here.
Research Project: The species on the checklist linked to immediately above were reported in a journal article that included nine islands near Mount Desert Island in what the authors called the “MDI unit”. Each species needs to be documented for Mount Desert Island itself.

Monocots (grasses, sedges, rushes, orchids, lilies, etc.)
Checklist: For a species checklist of monocots that (potentially) grow on Mount Desert Island, click here.
Research Project: The species on the checklist linked to immediately above were reported in a journal article that included nine islands near Mount Desert Island in what the authors called the “MDI unit”. Each species needs to be documented for Mount Desert Island itself.

Ceratophyllales
Checklist: 1 species: Ceratophyllum echinatum.

Eudicots (or tricolpates [remaining flowering plants])
Checklist: For a species checklist of eudicots (tricolpates) that (potentially) grow on Mount Desert Island, click here.
Research Project: The species on the checklist linked to immediately above were reported in a journal article that included nine islands near Mount Desert Island in what the authors called the “MDI unit”. Each species needs to be documented for Mount Desert Island itself.